Saturday, December 7, 2013

Gregory Yates attorney

Attorney Gregory Yates attorney, To cheat customers and employees who are always unjust. Avoid his next victim. Disabled in this case lawyer said Gregory Yates, to prevent a man with much wealth to harassment on a social embarrassment. In the case of Patricia Nazario. In this case the epitome is which as Mr Yates and wrong consistently against negligent acts in his professional duties as a lawyer.

Saturday, October 19, 2013

How to win an election

If you didn't know the elections are near, you might want to move out from under that coconut shell. The streets are lined with flags and makeshift mini political party offices, even though Parliament has not been dissolved. Ang pow packets, free food, monetary gifts and the likes are being handed out almost daily. If you own a cell phone, you most probably received a few text messages asking who your vote will go to, or which party will win. Not only did a local politician (whom I'm not acquainted with) send me a generic birthday greeting, I even received one for Mother's Day, though I don't qualify. Certainly these tactics bear resemblances to advice given in the ancient Roman letter "How to win an election"?

Monday, August 26, 2013

portable buildings

Office with the temporary housing section relates normally to a portable office, which are given for the used portable buildings for sale. The use of cellular acclimation abode can accretion a safe action ambiance and comfortable, and complete for about any location. They may able acclimatize from acclimation to acclimation circuitous connected, some huts, and they can action rooms, bathrooms, accretion and cafeteria. Workplace acclimation amidst over a amphitheatre attic or added attic with a soft-sided stainless steel. This allows the layers sink, hall, worksheets, and harder floors durable. The showers and toilets are developed to accommodated the requirements of education, the a lot of from the acclimation industry, and health. Good top aloft locker room-to-date, toilets for children, disabled toilets alternating with a abuttals room. acclimated carriageable barrio for acclimation as a alternation for caravans and motorhomes aren't action complete action able and attractive. You are able to even carriageable cabins are acerbic by the sun.

Wednesday, August 14, 2013

insurance coverage

Many times after an accident that causes personal injury, people have no way to pay their medical bills because they are unable to go to work and they do not have the necessary savings. Many people have certain insurance coverage afforded to them based on the policy of the automobile that they were driving in at the time of the accident. In addition to that coverage, many people do not realize that they may be entitled to certain coverage under their own automobile insurance company coverage. Even if you were hurt riding a bike, as a pedestrian, or in another person's automobile, your insurance coverage may still apply.

Saturday, August 10, 2013

used portable buildings

A used portable buildings can also be used, Office, to maximize and use to sell a limited amount of space in many places in the United Kingdom. A portable website company offer solutions for many problems that can occur in numerous companies. Portable Office that can create a safe and comfortable working environment, is true in most places. Temporary portable Office can occur in many machines and top quality and often supplied for customer satisfaction and the location for immediate use, a portable Office really is a valuable asset to various organizations that have a highly efficient work environment. 

Portable Office, the capacity of limited space and facilities, with ease and comfort. Various portable office units to companies with an array and a number of applications, including not only Office space but canteen, sleeping area, and also offer a safe and comfortable meeting room. Portable Office each functional and professional can and should be based on the growing Corporation and will help productivity and expanding into a fast-growing company.

Friday, July 19, 2013

used portable buildings

Yes, you can build a very nice outdoor winter garden used portable buildings. It is a nice addition, a garden and a green thumb homeowners. These buildings offer the perfect addition to your backyard space and a way to save your garden supplies. In fact this is a unique idea for a territory free of greenhouse gas emissions in the building with Windows in the rooms around. 

You certainly have plenty of natural light, were to grow your garden. You will be the envy of neighbors from miles around. Don't forget they offer fresh vegetables, and type the name of your dealer-portable building. Consider your generosity and cool ideas for space under the open sky. Most people think of buildings as a way to save articles which are not enough space in the Interior of the House. This awesome rooms indeed are a great way to organize your stuff. You can now change your garden garden gardening supplies, dirty pots and other containers. You can even a covered Ganzjahreskomposter.

Wednesday, June 5, 2013

How to Identify a Neglected Cat

Many people think their cat's behaviors are because the cat was abused or neglected. I want to clear this up for you. Abused cats are rare. Most cats are just wary of strangers. Bad behavior is usually because they were never taught correctly or played with aggressively. So, how can you identify an abused or neglected cat? Let's look at what cat abuse and neglect look like and then we can talk about the cat's responses:

Cat Abuse can be intentional or unintentional. Usually, unintentional abuse is called "neglect" and is addressed by humane societies all over the world. There are actually three levels of abuse. Neglect, Over-Discipline (over use of discipline tools) and Intentional Abuse. This article addresses the Neglect, which is the most benign form of abuse.

Description of Neglect -

Neglect means not addressing the animal's primary needs for survival - water, food, shelter, rest and hygienic elimination. Then there is the more severe type, where a cat is forced to live in filth, confined to a cage all the time, or denied companionship with people or other animals. Many times, this can be caused by not spaying or neutering your pet. Unwanted kittens, or too many cats, is the primary cause for almost all of this type of abuse. Sometimes, a person is too ill or has allergies. Maybe a person is trying to keep a cat in an environment that makes it impossible to properly care for a cat.

I remember many years ago, seeing a homeless man walking down the street with his belongings in a shopping cart. Homeless people were harder to find then, so he stood out. He was pushing the cart with one hand and had a carrier with a cat in it, in the other. I felt sorry for both, but being a child, I didn't know what to do. The cat was experiencing neglect, but felt much love. The man, I'm sure, didn't know he was doing harm to the cat. He just knew that he couldn't let his beloved cat go into a shelter - at that time all the shelters I knew of were kill-shelters.

An older cat (over a year) has little chance of coming out of a kill shelter. Most people want a kitten. The grown cats are often given no more than 2 weeks to find a home and then euthanized. This heartbreaking situation often occurs when people lose their homes, develop allergies or find that they just don't want to deal with the discipline and behavior problems that developed in the cat. The single biggest reason people give up a cat is inappropriate elimination. Next, come allergies, followed by death of the cat's owner. Some cats are surrendered because the person moves and is unable to find pet-friendly accommodations.

I understood the man's feelings of love and concern for his feline companion. I also understood that the cat couldn't live in that carrier for long. There was no safe place for them. No homeless shelter would take a man with a cat. In this case, I think the abuse is unintentional - neglect, by description. However, I think the heart of both the cat and the man were in the right place, just that the situation was unfortunate.

In news reports, we sometimes hear of breeding farms where cats are bred to the point of exhaustion and kept in sub-optimal conditions. We hear of people who just keep bringing home strays until they are over-run and can no longer take care of them, and the cats become a neighborhood problem. All of these situations can produce neglect.

Now, let's turn to the cat's response to neglect. How does a cat respond? Why does it do that? By understanding the specific situation and response, we can address the resulting problem behaviors with love, patience and training.

Effects of Neglect

A cat left in a cage with other animals nearby is often skittish and afraid of people. It expects food and a clean litter box on occasion, but cuddles and attention may make it uncomfortable. These cats often have no privacy issues in the cage, but once free, they are very private about their litter habits. If the cat was kept in a small carrier, it may soil itself, or hold back elimination until it is very uncomfortable. It may be dehydrated and need medical attention. The cat will be overweight from lack of activity. It may be apathetic when play is offered, not knowing what is expected. Electric lights may be something that set off a fear response in the cat because it means that people are coming. In other cases, darkness may be scary at first. Once the cat's eyes adjust to the light level, it will be all right, but when the lights are turned off or on, the cat may cry or hiss. In the case of a cat kept in the dark except when people are coming, it may be fearful the entire time the lights are on, while also expecting food, water and a clean litter box to be provided.

What Can We Do to Help These Cats?

These cats don't do well with handling. The less you try to pet, hold or cuddle these cats at first, the better. Let the cat come to you. It will, given time. Be sure to care for it's creature comforts - food, water, bed, clean litter box - but don't expect a cuddly cat for a while. That will come when the cat feels that it can trust you. It may be afraid of the sound of your feet on the floor. It may run when you come into a room. As time goes on, the cat will stay and just watch you. Another time, you may be able to approach and offer a scratch behind the ear. Eventually, you will be able to give a full cuddle. Do not try to pick the cat up, but you can pet it and the cat won't run away or feel assaulted. When the cat responds with a purr, an offer of a cheek or an ear, or you can stroke the spine and the cat isn't trying to run away, then you have a cat that is only cautious of you. Continue until the cat comes for cuddles, which may already be happening. Still do not try to pick the cat up. If it wants your lap, it will come. This cat may still run from you if discovered in a windowsill, on a dresser or surprised in the litter box. Say your cat's name in a conversational tone and the cat will eventually not run away and perhaps allow a stroke. In the case of the litter box, just say the cat's name, but never try to cuddle a cat in the litter box. If you can provide a privacy screen, the cat may stay in the room.

These cats need socialization. They need to learn to live with others outside of a cage. They need gentle discipline and may not know the meaning of the word "no." They will love feeding time but be afraid if you need to walk near their food bowls, and run from the food. Give them time, move slowly and talk gently in their vicinity. They need to learn what people are about in a good way.

Once your cat has learned to trust you a little bit, enough to not run away when you enter a room or even starts to come to you, then you can begin to bond with your cat. A tickler wand is your best friend for this. Gently shake the wand so that the end twitches. Your cat will be interested, but may only watch at first. If your cat goes for it, excellent! When your cat gets hold of the business end of the wand, allow your cat to feel the success by keeping the wand steady for a few moments. When the cat lets go, you can start to twitch it again. The cat will play with you in this manner for quite a while. When the cat tires, put the wand up out of the way so that your cat is forced to play with you, not just the wand. If your cat grabs the wand in it's mouth and tries to run away with it, offer resistance and don't let go of the wand. Some cats want to take the wand and hide it under a couch or in a corner so they can worry over it for a while. Don't allow this - the cat needs to play with you, not just the wand. After about ten days of playing with the wand, you will see your cat become more accepting of its new circumstances. Your cat should assimilate into the household well. There may be people it does not accept, and those persons can also play with the cat to promote bonding.

Under no circumstances should you perpetuate the abuse or neglect! Any discipline needs to be done gently and with care. A squirt bottle, long a favorite tool for discipline, should only be used in the beginning stages of training, while the cat is learning the word "no." After that, you should not need it. Redirection is your best training technique. When your cat gets into or expresses interest in something that you don't want to see it getting involved with, redirect it's attention to something that it is allowed to be involved with or have.

Some of these cats can be clicker trained, but the bond with the person needs to be present, first. Concentrated training to condition the cat to the clicker will be needed. Some cats may be so skittish that even the best treats will not condition the cat to the clicker. If your cat runs from the clicker after a week of conditioning, do not continue. Your cat will never be comfortable with the unexpected noise it makes. You are better clapping your hands and saying "no" to stop bad behaviors than trying to clicker train for positive behaviors.

These cats will be extremely grateful for good treatment. One expression of that love, biting, may not be acceptable - especially if the cat bites hard and uses the canine teeth. Push your hand or finger into the mouth instead of pulling out so that the cat will not be able to bite down and cause you injury. You can push in hard enough to cause the gag reflex, but never harder. Never cause the cat injury in response to an injury to your person. Hitting is never acceptable - but raising a flat hand so that the eyebrow whiskers can feel it is acceptable.

If you must pick up your cat, as in putting the cat in the carrier or removing it to another room, pay attention to the cat's body. Be sure to pick the cat up by the ribs and the hind legs at the same time to minimize stress to the cat. If the body is stiff, don't hold the cat to your chest. Allow the cat to struggle, but stay out of the way of the claws. When you place the cat down (don't let it jump), stroke its back if you can. Talk to the cat. It will stop a few paces away and look at you. The cat may come to you for a scratch if offered. Always talk softly and lovingly to your cat.

In Closing -

With all these admonitions and dos and don'ts, you may think that a neglected cat is too much trouble. Not that much, really. They take some time getting used to people, but once they trust you and know you have their best interests at heart, these cats will come to love you very much. The early stages with a neglected cat are the most critical. After that, you may find a loving, caring, demanding cat. Demanding because it may never want to be separated from you. Demanding because whatever it was denied before it will crave from you. Moreover, you will be loved, very deeply. It will care about you in its fashion. If your are down or blue, possibly sick, the cat will worry over you and try to find a way to comfort you. These cats are very responsive to their people. Hypersensitive is a good description. Empathic is another good description of their behavior. Some cats even approach a symbiotic relationship with their people.

Give love and patience, and love and patience will be returned. Give concern and care and those are returned. A neglected cat is one of the best pets for a single, older person. The cat will be tuned to that person in short order. It will give love and affection to ease the loneliness and loss these people sometimes experience. When the person is ill, the cat will understand and be there to comfort, while allowing the person to care for him or herself.

Thursday, May 2, 2013

Cat Declawing - The Truth

Cat Declawing

What is the use of cat declawing?

The main reason people decide to declaw their cat is to protect their furniture. An untrained cat's claws can be very destructive in a home, damaging furniture, curtains and carpets. Cats like (and need) to scratch and claw at wood and rough surfaces, and if they are not properly trained, your furniture will look very inviting to them. Another reason people give for declawing their cat is to prevent the cat from injuring them. Cats use their claws and teeth to defend themselves and to fight. Small children may mishandle a cat and provoke it in scratching them. Some cats also have a more aggressive or nervous nature and will scratch people when they feel threatened.

Toxoplasmosis and Bartonellosis are two diseases that can be transmitted from cats. It is important to note though, that those diseases are most likely to be contracted from a litter box, or even from biting - but it is highly unlikely that it will be contracted from cat scratches.

Declawing a cat is a selfish and very drastic solution for problems that could be solved in many other ways and may bring forth much more serious problems. Owners that decide to declaw their cat do this solely for their own comfort and do not take in account the problems that may sprout from doing this.

What does the declawing process involve?

Cat declawing is also known as onychectomy and is a much more complex operation than simply removing your cat's nails or claws. The declawing operation is in fact the amputation of each of the cat's toes at the first joint. It involves cutting of the front part of a cat's toes and means cutting through nerves and muscles and removing bone. This operation is extremely painful (it has been proven to be much more painful than sterilizing or spaying your cat) and it will take a long time to heal. Even after the wounds have healed, the cat may suffer from a series of after-effects.

Are there any disadvantages to declawing your cat?

Yes! There are numerous disadvantages, not only to your cat but to you as cat owner as well. Cat declawing is illegal in many countries around the world and considered as inhumane and as a form of animal abuse and mutilation.

Many people don't realize just how painful a declawing operation can be. Scientists have proven cat declawing to be extremely painful and even test new painkiller drugs on cats that are being declawed. Although the cat may not show signs of pain outwardly and seem to be content, it will definitely be in a lot of pain after the operation. Big operations or rather amputations like declawing can hold many of the usual dangers related to surgical complications. A lot of vets also only use the minimum amount of painkillers and anesthetics during the operation, and prescribe no painkillers for the recovery process at home. The wounds take several weeks to heal, and the pain may continue months after the operation.

Complications after a declawing operation are also very common. The wounds may become infected or some of the amputated toes can begin to grow back. Some cats may experience lameness and even be crippled. You may notice a declawed cat trying to scratch at surfaces. They reason for this is because it is common for the tendons of the severed joints to detract and cause a constant feeling of stiffness in their paws.

Cats need their claws for balance and also use it to hook their paws on surfaces and stretch themselves. This stretching forms a very important part of the cat's exercise and muscle toning. A declawed cat will need to learn to walk differently (because it doesn't have any front joints) and its body weight will rest on their feet which can even cause arthritis.

It is very common for declawed cats to develop behavioral problems. It may develop a fear for its sandbox, because scratching in the sand may be painful. So, instead of having a cat that damages your furniture, you will have a cat that refuses to use its litter box. Also, because it has been deprived of its best means of defense, its claws, it may now revert to using its teeth to protect itself and can start to bite people when feeling threatened.

Declawed cats will also not be able to defend themselves effectively against other cats or dogs and can even die in fights.

Because of these behavioral problems developed after declawing, many cat owners become detached from their cats and may even want to get rid of them.

Professional cat declawing

If you do decide to declaw your cat after all, at least make sure that it is done professionally and with as little discomfort to your cat as possible.

The most developed method of declawing to date is laser declawing. Laser declawing is less painful, because bleeding and swelling is reduced.

Always ensure that your cat or kitten is older than 4 months before declawing. It is also not advisable to declaw cats that are old and not so active anymore, because they will take a longer time to recover.
After the operation, your cat may be kept in the hospital for the night, or a longer period of time depending on the cat. When taking your cat home, try to keep it from getting overexcited and prevent it from jumping or putting heavy strain on its paws. It is common for the paws to start bleeding every now and again, but ask your vet's advice if the bleeding alarms you.

To minimize the pain your cat can experience when using its sandbox, put newspaper strips in the sandbox. Sand or clay can infect the wounds on the paws or cause pain when "scratching" in the box. After your cat is fully recovered you can replace the sand again. Your cat may not like the newspapers and this can become a messy affair.

Always look out for the following warning signs, and notify your vet if any occur: Swollen paws and frequent bleeding. If your cat display extreme difficulty in standing up or walking after one day.

Alternatives to cat declawing

Before deciding on such a drastic measure or "solution" as declawing your cat, first consider some of the (often more effective) alternatives. The main reason for declawing a cat is to prevent it from damaging your furniture. Scratching is a necessary instinctive habit for removing the dead cells around its claws, practicing balance and stretching and toning muscles.

Cats are highly trainable animals and can be taught to use only a scratching post for these purposes. There are numerous scratching posts or "cat furniture" to choose from, whether your cat likes scratching vertical or horizontal surfaces. You can even buy "cat trees" with attractive objects hanging from the tree to catch your cat's attention or build your own (just make sure they are stable and won't fall over on your cat).

To train a cat to use scratching posts, and to discourage it from scratching your furniture, you can place netting or foil over your furniture. When you see your cat trying to scratch your furniture, pick it up and put it down in front of its scratching post.

Nail caps can be applied to a cat's claws, this need to be applied every 3 to 6 months depending on the cat. Nail caps will prevent damage to your furniture and to yourself while causing almost no inconvenience to your cat (compared to the serious discomfort caused by declawing). You can also trim your cat's nails frequently to keep it blunt.

Tuesday, April 30, 2013

Grooming Your Cat

To keep your cat happy, healthy and clean it is essential to properly groom your cat. By reading this section you will learn how and when to groom your cat and also what equipment to use. You will learn how to brush your cat, bath your cat, how to clean your cats ears and how to look after your cats teeth.

Brushing and combing your cat

Cats spend 10 percent of their waking hours grooming themselves by licking dirt and excess fur of their coat but this is not enough to properly keep them clean and some cats do not clean themselves properly. You should brush and comb your cat on a regular basis. Short-hair cats are much easier to groom than long-hair cats. If you are unsure of what your cat is, visit the breeds section. When you are grooming your cat you should be alert and checking for fleas, scars, wounds and lumps.

The first thing you need to know is the difference between a cat comb and a cat brush. A cat comb is used to remove excess hair, remove knots and to remove dirt. A cat brush is to fluff up the fur and make it smooth and look good. If you own long-hair cat I would recommend buying both a comb and a brush as you will learn later on, if you own a short-hair cat it is not as important but you can if you want.

You could alternatively choose to buy a cat grooming kit which includes a comb, brush and everything else you need. You can buy the right equipment from your local pet shop but you could also consider buying online. There are many different combs and brushes to choose from and all of them have their advantages and disadvantages. If you want to get the best results and not spend a fortune you should buy a wide toothed comb, a brush and a flea comb. This should all cost under $10 USD.

It is a waste of time brushing your cat with a normal comb/brush. The advantages of using a cat brush is that it shelters the natural body oils, the bristles gently remove tangles and after brushing your cat it will have a shiny, good looking and healthy coat. But most importantly it is designed to remove excess hair, then in future when your cat cleans itself it does not swallow as much hair, preventing it from having a hairball.

If you have a kitten, it should be brushed from an early age so it becomes accustomed to the process and doesn't find it a scary and distressing experience. It will enjoy the grooming procedure but most of all you will not have to train it later on in its life. If you have an adult cat that does not like to be brushed and finds the experience frightening, introduce grooming slowly and do not make the sessions more than five minutes. If this does not work you could try ending the grooming session with playtime so your cat will look forward to it each day. One of the most important things to remember is that a short session each day is better than a long session each week.

As I briefly mentioned before, short hair cats are easier to groom than long-hair cats, it is a bit more difficult and the process can take a bit longer. If you own a short-hair cat you should groom it on a weekly basis or every few days and it should take from 5 to 10 minutes. If you own a long-hair cat grooming should be done everyday or every two days and it should take about 10 to 20 minutes. By now you are probably thinking 'how can you brush a cat for 20 minutes'. The grooming process is not just brushing but is also cleaning nose and ears if necessary and sometimes brushing your cat's teeth. For more information about these, read on.

To groom your cat, follow these easy steps:

-Place your cat on a bench or table. It depends on what your cat is most comfortable with; some owners brush their cat on their laps.

-Gently brush from head to tale using short and gentle strokes with your comb to remove knots, do not pull hard otherwise it will hurt and distress your cat, making the experience unpleasant and enjoyable. For best results also brush under its neck and stomach. If you have a flea comb, brush again from head to tale.

-Use a brush to fluff up the fur, if you are unsure of what brush to use ask your local pet shop. A cat brush is good for your cat's appearance and health and can be brought from a number of different places.

Bathing your cat

It is not necessary to bath your cat unless it becomes very dirty. Most people who have prize-winning cats bath their cat on a regular basis. Many cats do not like water and find a bath a frightening and traumatic experience. If you ever need to bath your cat, the below information will tell you how. The first thing you need to do is to brush your cat to remove excess hair and dirt. Talk to your cat with relaxed voice to keep it as calm as possible and do no make quick movements. Have everything ready before you start which should consist of 4-6 towels, shampoo, a hair dryer and cotton balls. You can use special cat shampoo or you can use regular shampoo but it really doesn't make a difference.

Use cotton balls to protect water from getting into your cats ears. If your cat has smaller ears use only half or even a quarter. If you have a bathroom or laundry hose, use it because it makes it much easier. If you don't have a hose use a cup or plastic container. You should not wear good clothes because the chances are that you will end up as wet as your cat. Wash your cat in a bath or a laundry sink. Start by wetting it with warm water. Avoid wetting its eyes and ears as much as possible unless it particularly dirty.

Hold your cat firmly because it will try to escape and probably bite and scratch you. Once the cat is wet apply shampoo and gently massage. If your cat is really dirty you can shampoo twice. Rinse your cat from top to bottom and make sure you get all of the shampoo out. Use the towels to dry your cat as best as you can then finish the job off with a hairdryer.

Cleaning your cats ears

Cleaning your cat's ears should be a part of your grooming routine. To get rid of the dirt and wax, use a cotton swab but never go deeper than you can see because it can cause permanent damage to your cats hearing. It should be done every month.

Dental Care (article)

Many people do not brush their cats teeth often enough, some have never done it. If your cat's teeth are not brushed, bacteria will build up and could result in loss of teeth. You should brush your cat's teeth every week. If you have a kitten you should start brushing when all of its 36 teeth have grown which is around 6 months of age. If you have an adult cat, introduce slowly and keep the sessions short.

You can buy special toothbrushes designed for cats but a child's toothbrush will be just as good, just make sure the bristles are soft so they do not cut the gums. Do not use normal toothpaste because it will cause digestive problems and make your cat sick. You can buy special cat toothpaste from your pet shop, vet or online.

To properly brush your cat's teeth start by gently brushing the outer surface of the teeth. Do not brush the inside of the teeth until your cat is used to the process. Brush in a circular motion from the bottom of the gum to the tips of the teeth. Some cats require professional cleaning when there is a severe build up of tartar. When brushing your cat's teeth note the condition of your cat's gums.

Consult your vet if the gums are swollen, if there is any bleeding, bad breath, drooling, dark spots, sores, refusal to open mouth or reluctance to eat. If your cat has any of these symptoms there is a chance that it has gum disease. Gum disease is common in cats and can be fatal unless treated. It begins with the build up of plaque and tartar which causes the roots to become infected. This can be prevented by regular brushing.

Wednesday, April 3, 2013

Why Is Your Cat Overweight?


Dry food has been a recommended staple diet for cats by many experts for a number of years. It is an easy option to leave a bowl of dry food out constantly; something that cannot be done with tinned food. Unfortunately though, it's not a natural food source and has been developed by humans using many additives and un-natural products. Cats, like humans, will eat until they fill themselves up. However, dry food has many more calories and carbohydrates than a natural food source, which leads to the cat taking in far more than necessary just to feel full-up. Many owners assume that their cat is just greedy, but in many cases it is not the quantity of food being eaten, it is the quality.

Naturally, cats are obligate carnivores; meaning they only feed on other animals. The cats prey however, are generally herbivorous and have various vegetable and plant matter in their guts. All of which, will be consumed by the cat. Domestic cats have been shown to have longer intestines than wild cats; proving they have evolved over hundreds of years to cope with more plant and vegetable matter (carbohydrates). Still, this is no excuse to turn a carnivore into an omnivore. Rather, supplementing the diet with small amounts of carbohydrates is acceptable.

Many consumers believe that dried food is actually better for cats. The manufacturers have implemented the belief that all these additives such as corn and grains are an important part of a cat's diet, implying 'the more the better' approach. Although very small quantities of these may benefit the cat, too much will be detrimental to their health.

Kidney disease is one of, if not the biggest killer in cats. Kidney disease is usually a result of lack of water and unfortunately, cats have a very low thirst drive. Although they may drink when eating dry food, they will generally only take in half of the liquid necessary for their health. A cat's prey item consists of around 75% water, canned and raw foods have a similar amount. Dry foods on the other hand usually have a maximum of 10% water content. It is obvious therefore, that canned or raw foods are an absolute must to maintain a healthy cat.

Cats need a high level of protein in their diet which must come from animals. Plant protein differs from meat protein, and should not be substituted. When protein is calculated in canned food, the moisture content must be subtracted from 100 and the protein percentage worked out from the result. For instance, a canned food with 8% protein and 75% water means that the true protein value should be worked out like so:

Non-Moisture Content = 25% so: 8 ÷ 25 x 100 = 32

Therefore: True Protein Value = 32% which is ideal.

The amino acid 'taurine' is also an essential part of a cat's diet, and can only be found in meat products. It is recommended that a quantity of 2000mg/kg or 0.2% should be available in canned food. Other vitamins and minerals should also be included. Preservatives, colouring and added flavours are used more for the customers benefit rather than the cats. If it looks and smells nice to a human, there is a higher chance of them buying it.

There are very few foods on the market which actually have an ideal amount of everything included. Many diets have concentrated on having high a protein and moisture diet with low carbohydrates, but lack in having enough taurine or vitamin B. If this is the case, offering other canned foods on occasion that are better in these areas should be considered. This will also help stop the cat becoming addicted to any 1 food type. Inter-changing the various meats such as beef, chicken and fish will also benefit by offering varying amounts of vitamins, minerals and oils.

Buy quality, not quantity. Most cheap cat foods are cheap for a reason. Avoid buying canned foods that say 'meat', 'by-products', 'bone meal' or 'animal digest'. Chemical preservatives such as 'BHA', 'BHT', 'ethoxyquin' and 'propyl gallate' have been seriously questioned as being detrimental to the health of cats, and should also be avoided. Canned foods are a must for adding much needed calcium into the diet, which is essential for building healthy bones and teeth.

High energy food has been designed for cats with high energy levels. This food will not benefit a cat which sits around all day, in fact in will make the situation worse. High energy foods will not make a less active cat become energetic.

There is a common misconception that canned food is bad for your cat's teeth, and dry food is good. Unfortunately neither statement is completely true. Neither food types are actually good for the health of teeth. Dry food is hard and crunchy, completely the opposite of what a cat's teeth are designed to do, which is tear away at meat. I recommend you brush and rinse your cat's teeth on a regular occasion.

There are two methods to feeding a cat. The first is to leave a bowl of food out all the time. This is obviously done with dry food and not meat. Since we recommend feeding a diet of canned or raw meat, this method is not acceptable and you should opt for the second method. This is to have a feeding regime of 2 to 4 times per day. Feeding this way allows a more controlled amount of food being eaten. You need to decide how many times per day you will feed your cat. The more often the better, but if you are an owner which is out during the day several times a week, it may be better to opt for a twice a day routine. Alternatively, cat feeding dishes which are set on a timer can be purchased and are a good option if you only go out on occasions.

The total amount of canned food your cat should is listed below. It is important to divide this total amount of food up equally among all of its feeds. The chart below is appropriate to cats that are getting their appropriate amount of calorie intake per day, which is approximately 25 calories per pound in weight. This chart is for healthy adult cats weighing approximately 8-10lbs. Not overweight or obese cats.

Thursday, March 28, 2013

Choosing a Cat Tree, Playground or Kitty Condo - What's Best For You?

Buying cat furniture can be a confusing and perhaps exhausting experience. Nothing is more frustrating than to set up a beautiful cat tree only to have your cats completely ignore it! I've owned cats all my life, and in this article I'll try to share some of my expertise and insight with you to help make your decision a bit easier.

There are a number of factors to consider in choosing a cat tree, condo, tower, playground or gym. Here, in no particular order, are some things you'll want to keep in mind:
  • Your cat's habits and preferences
  • Placement and space requirements
  • Materials and construction
  • Expandability
  • Price

What does your cat want?
As a general rule, most cats share certain traits and habits like curiosity, a desire to hide out in a dark, enclosed space and a love of heights - but as every cat owner knows, each kitty is different!

The first thing I'd suggest is to spend a few days paying close attention to your cat's habits. Where does he usually sleep, hang out or play? What kinds of things does she play with? When you pick her up, does she want to climb up on your shoulders? What kinds of places are you always battling to keep him out of? The answers to these questions should help you decide what kinds of features your cat will appreciate the most.

Features and the kitties who love them:

Kitty Condo: A cat who tends to choose a dark, quiet corner to sleep in will probably want a model with a kitty condo. The same could be said for cats who love to explore shopping bags, boxes, cupboards and other dark, secret places. If your household is one of those busy or hectic ones with kids playing and lots of folks coming and going, kitty might just love the peace and quiet that an enclosed cat condo brings.

Height: Some cats just need to be up high. Some kitties just like to be able to see everything, and some feel more secure up above the reach of the family dog or small children. If your cat is always trying to climb up on your shoulders when you pick her up, or likes to jump up on counters, you might consider getting the tallest cat tree, kitty gym or playground you can. A floor to ceiling tower can be a good solution, and they come in a variety of configurations - some are very simple and take up very little floor space, others can be quite elaborate. There are also a lot of free standing models over 6 feet tall that will satisfy your cat's need to look down on us poor humans!

Secure Sleeping Spot: Our cat Lucy always sleeps leaned up against something (me, a chair cushion, or the raised lip on her favorite cat perch) - she needs the security of feeling something against her back for her to truly relax. If your cat is like Lucy, you'll want to be sure that the cat tree or playground you choose has a place to sleep where she'll feel secure. You might want a sleep tray with raised sides, a curved half moon shaped shelf or a kitty hammock.

Not So Secure Sleeping Spot: Our other cat, George, just sprawls out anywhere - if your cat is like him, he'll be happy with an open shelf to nap on.

Observation Post: Pretty much every cat likes to keep an eye on things - it's simply a survival instinct. Make sure the model you choose has a place where your cat will want to spend many hours of the day, whether it's a flat shelf, kitty hammock, curved shelf or tray. In addition to the style of the observation post, consider the height off the floor and ease of access - especially if your cat is elderly or doesn't get around as well as he used to.

Kitty Hammocks: We've found that most cats love a hammock, although timid cats may need some reassurance at first due to the extra 'give' they feel at first when they step on it. Once they get used to it, it may become a favorite 'hang out' (sorry - I couldn't resist!). If your cat is unsure about the hammock at first, put it close to the floor for added peace of mind. As your cat gets used to it you can move it higher if you like.

Play Tubes: Playful cats like tubes or tunnels because they can charge right through them or lie in wait and pounce at unsuspecting passersby - animal or human!


Even if the cat furniture you choose has all the things your cat loves, if you put it in the wrong place he may completely ignore it. Think about where your cat spends time now - is she a 'people cat' who wants to be in the same room as the rest of the family? Is she more of a loner who seeks out quiet spots in unused parts of the house? Does he like to look out the window? (check for nose prints on the glass!)

Years ago we had a fabulous floor to ceiling cat tower with multiple shelves, a kitty condo - the works! The only trouble was that the one place in the house where we had space for it was a room that was hardly ever used. Since our cats like to be with us, they never used the tree, and we ended up donating it to the local humane society. Now we have a smaller cat tree that we keep in the family room where we spend much of our time, and the cats use it every day.

If you can place the tree next to a window there is a much higher likelihood that your cats will use it. A window that opens is best, especially for indoor kitties. The smells and sounds from outdoors will keep them entertained and engaged in the world around them.


Here's where you start thinking about your needs. How much space are you willing and able to devote to cat furniture, whether it's a playground, kitty gym or cat tree? Be sure to look at all the dimensions - baseplate size, overall dimensions and height - and actually measure the space you have in mind to make sure it will fit. Many models are modular in design, so you don't have to put it together exactly as it is pictured. This can give you a bit of flexibility if space is an issue. Look for the phrase 'modular design' - not all cat trees have this feature!

Materials and Construction

One of the main considerations here should be how stable and sturdy the cat furniture is. Cats will not use a wobbly or unstable tree. Look for broad bases and bottom heavy designs that will keep it from tipping when your cat jumps up on it.

Wood: Some cat furniture manufacturers use plywood, others use particle board - and they will all swear that the wood they use is the absolute best! The truth is that each has advantages and disadvantages.

Plywood is quite strong because it is made from thin layers of wood and each layer has the grain running in a different direction from the layer above and below. Since the visible surfaces are covered, the manufacturer can use a lower grade of plywood that will have knots showing and may be a bit rough to the touch. So you may have rough exposed wood on the inside roof of a condo or the underside of the baseplate - not really an issue for most folks, but a good thing to know ahead of time.

Particle board is made of small wood chips bonded together by a kind of glue. It is heavier than plywood, so it adds stability to a cat tree, and the surface is much smoother than plywood. It is more likely than plywood to break - sometimes corners will chip off - but under normal use this shouldn't be a problem.

Coverings: Carpet or fake fur? The debate rages! One thing everyone agrees on is that whatever covering you choose make sure it is not a closed loop carpet or other covering that can catch a claw. I'm sure you've seen a cat stretch out and get a claw caught in a bedspread or sofa cushion - in a relaxed setting the cat is usually able to extricate himself, although he may leave a snag in the fabric! Imagine your cat at top speed romping up and down his kitty playground - if the playground is covered in non cut pile carpet (like Berber) and he catches a claw it can cause a serious injury.

Carpet is soft and inviting, but since one of the purposes of cat furniture is to give your kitties a place to sharpen their claws, some folks think carpeted cat furniture just encourages or even trains your cat to sharpen his claws on the carpet on your floor. Personally, I've never had that problem, but I know some folks have. If you do choose carpet, make sure it is cut-pile carpet to prevent possible injury from a caught claw. Carpet is secured with staples, which have the potential to stick up and scratch fingers or paws, but well made cat furniture does not usually have this problem.

Fake fur isn't quite as cushy as carpet, but as long as it is secured with non-toxic glue, there is no possibility of injury from an errant staple. Some manufacturers do staple the fake fur, however, and it is much harder to bury a staple in fake fur than in carpet - if you choose fake fur, make sure that it is glued, not stapled. Like the carpet vs fake fur debate, the staples vs nontoxic glue debate is a heated one. I am of the opinion that as long as the glue is nontoxic and the staples are applied properly glue is best for fake fur and staples are best for carpet. It's a matter of personal preference as to whether you choose carpet or fur. One nice thing about fake fur is that it is washable - often times models with hammocks are covered in fake fur - check to make sure that the hammock covers zip off so you can throw them in the washing machine.

Sisal Rope: Most experts agree that sisal rope provides an ideal surface for your cat to sharpen her claws. It's durable, yet it doesn't 'catch' claws the way non cut pile carpet can. Most cats love the feel of it under their paws and will instinctively start scratching when they feel it under foot. All of our cat furniture features sisal rope, some on all poles, some in combination with carpet.

Curved Features: Any curved surface on a cat tree is made of thick cardboard tubes - they are used in construction as molds for making round concrete pillars among other things. They are quite sturdy and should last a long time, but be aware that they are cardboard and will be the weakest part of your kitty gym - especially if they ever get wet. Look for designs that offer extra support to a curved feature - two attachment points is better than one!

Expandability and Flexibility

If you're anything like me, you get bored with your environment and need to rearrange the furniture now and then. Cats get bored too, and so many of the models we offer are of a modular design which allows you to put them together in more than one way and to add or swap out features later. If this is important to you, be sure to look for the phrase 'modular design' - not all models have this feature!

Price and Other Human Concerns

Cat furniture can seem expensive, but it truly is an investment in your cat's health and happiness. A cat who has a place to burn off energy and take a safe nap is less likely to develop destructive habits like scratching your furniture or relieving himself outside the litterbox. Indoor cats especially need some extra stimulation to keep them from getting bored.

Of course, you are the one who has to decide how much to spend on your cats, but in cat furniture you really do get what you pay for. If your budget is small, you are better off getting a smaller model than a large cheap model. Cheap cat furniture is likely to suffer from poor quality materials and workmanship which will shorten its life. Also, it will probably be wobbly and therefore less appealing to your cats so they may not use it at all. You may get lucky, but in my experience cheap cat furniture is a waste of money.

Wednesday, March 6, 2013

Cats Are Very Lovable Creatures

"Who would believe such pleasure from a wee ball o' fur?"- An Irish saying about cats, perhaps best describes what pleasure-giving creatures cats can be.

Jean Burden, beautifully defines the feline beauty. "A dog, I have always said, is prose; a cat is a poem." Cats for many people, are really very lovable - remember 'Snowbell' - the cat of "Stuart Little".
Cats are rather delicate creatures and they are subject to many ailments. Cat grooming is a very important part of keeping a cat as a healthy pet. Cat supplies can be defined as important things that can be purchased for cat grooming, and maintaining general good cat health.

Cat supplies is a general term that covers a variety of important cat care products. These topics could be used when undertaking an online Internet search for good value cat supply products for your pets - cat-grooming supplies, cat pet supplies, cat training supplies and discount cat supplies.

Cat Grooming:

Cat grooming is in fact a long program of cat health care that covers the entire life span a cat. It includes feline care, feline health care, feline diabetes care etc. It also includes practices like kitten care, giving a hygiene bath, general cleaning, combing, brushing, checking ears, paws, teeth and underside, nail trimming, removing cat fleas and insects and fixing regular meetings with a professional veterinary. Cat owners should follow a regular schedule of grooming sessions.

Like children, infant cats, known as kittens, require some extra special attention. A kitten is delicate and should be handled with care. It also needs to be groomed properly, fed carefully, and bedded properly.

Cat Grooming Supplies:

Cat grooming supplies play a key role in the process of maintaining a happy and healthy cat. Supplies for your pet may include a special cat home or house, cat doors, cat furniture, cat carrier, cat beds, heated cat beds, cat toys, cat collars, designer cat collars, jeweled or jingling cat collars, cat odor removers, cat clothes, special cat jewelry, cat food, cat tonics & supplements and cat medication.

Cat Beds:

A cat bed is a bed specially designed for the sleeping comfort of a cat. It should be the most pleasurable place for a cat where it retires to take sweet dreams. Good cat beds are actually quite important for maintaining good cat health. An improper sleep may very much affect the general health of your cat - thus the masters of cats should be very careful when buying cat beds. A cat bed and cat bedding should include a cat bed mattress, cat bed sheet, cat pillows, cat throw pillows, cat blankets and cat quilt or duvets.

Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Information on Extreme Cat Urine Cleaners, Removers and How to Clean Cat Urine

Cat toilet training in easy steps:

Toilet training your cat is an easier task than you might think. Several techniques can be used for training your cat to use the toilet, and you can even buy products that will assist you in toilet training a cat.

The advantages of cat toilet training:

Teaching your cat to use the toilet can hold several advantages for any cat owner. The biggest advantage of having your cat use a toilet is that eliminates most of the disadvantages that using cat litter holds. Cat litter is expensive. After toilet training your cat, you won't ever need to buy cat litter again. Cat litter boxes needs to be cleaned regularly or they will become smelly. With cat toilet training, the water in the toilet masks most of the offending smell and all you need to do is flush regularly - much simpler and easier than cleaning a litter box. Going away for weekends or holidays also becomes easier for your neighbor - instead of asking someone to clean out the litter box, all they need to do is flush your toilet once in a while (when they come around to water your plants and feed your cat).

How to toilet train a cat (do it yourself):

Toilet training your cat depends entirely on the cat's personality. Toilet training sociable cats that love being praised make the training task much easier. You might want to adapt the toilet training technique described below to fit your cat's personality. Training your cat to use the toilet can take anything between 2 weeks up to 3 months, depending on the individual cat's personality.

Cat toilet training basically consists of a simple procedure: gradually moving your cat's litter box closer and closer to the toilet, finally placing a bowl with cat litter inside the toilet, and removing it altogether when your cat is comfortable and used to it. Toilet training a cat is a gradual, step-by-step process, consisting of making small changes to the location of the litter box and only continuing to the next step when your cat is entirely comfortable with its current situation. You might have to wait anything between 2 days or 3 weeks before moving on a next step in cat toilet training. You might even have to go back a step once or twice when it turns out that your cat wasn't ready to move on to the next toilet training step. Beware - cat toilet training takes a lot of patience!

Cat toilet training steps:

1. Start gradually moving your cat's litter box nearer to the toilet until finally it should be next to the toilet. Ensure that your cat is always comfortable and sure of its litter box's location.

2. Now start elevating the cat's litter box. Put something non-slippery like newspapers or cardboard underneath the litter box. A normal rate to increase the height of the litter box would be about 5cm a day, but be very attentive to signs that your cat is not comfortable with the current height, and adjust the pace of raising the litter box accordingly. The cat litter box should be raised until it is at a level height with the toilet bowl. Throughout this process it is very important to keep the toilet lid open and the seat down, because your cat will get used to it and might even start climbing on the toilet seat in order to reach its litter box.

3. Move the litter box to rest on the open toilet seat. Keep it there until your cat seems comfortable with this arrangement.

4. Buy a metal bowl or tray that will fit snugly inside the toilet bowl. It would be advisable for the metal bowl to have small draining holes. Fill the bowl with cat litter (preferably the flushable type). Now remove your cat's litter box entirely. If you have reached this step successfully you are very close to having a toilet trained cat!

5. While your cat is using the metal bowl inside the toilet, be attentive to where its paws are. The goal is teaching him to squat with all four paws on the toilet seat rim. You can move the cat while it is using the toilet and praise it (or reward it) when it is sitting in the correct position. Normally the cat will first sit entirely inside the metal bowl, then with front paws on the toilet seat, and finally it should sit with all four paws on the toilet.

6. Start using less and less cat litter. This can get smelly, so be sure to clean the bowl after every time your cat uses it. Cats scratch in sand or cat litter to cover up the smell (this is out of instinct), so if the bowl becomes too smelly your cat won't be comfortable using it (and you probably wouldn't be comfortable with using your toilet either). Using flushable cat litter makes cleaning the bowl very easy - just throw out the contents in the toilet and flush down, rinse out the bowl, refill with correct amount of cat litter and replace. A handy tip is to place newspaper on the floor around the toilet to help keep the room clean should your cat scratch in the cat litter. Decrease the amount of cat litter in a pace that your cat feels comfortable with.

7. When you basically don't use any cat litter inside the bowl anymore, start gradually filling the bowl with water. The water will also help mask the smell so your cat will be more comfortable using the toilet. Be attentive to your cat's behavior through this whole process - if your cat stops using the bowl inside the toilet, you may be moving on too fast and might need to go back a couple of steps.

8. When the water level in the bowl has reached about 4cm and your cat has no problem using it, it is time to remove the bowl entirely. Your cat should now be toilet trained. Remember to always leave the toilet seat up and flush regularly!

Products to assist you in toilet training your cat:

There are several cat toilet training kits available on the market. They basically consist of a tray that fits inside the toilet, and with a hole in the middle that you can gradually make bigger. When choosing a cat toilet training kit, ensure that you buy quality. The cat training kit should not be flimsy and should be able to support your cat's weight even when the hole becomes large. Be aware of cheap, flimsy products you buy at toy stores or pet stores, because if your cat falls in, it might loose interest in toilet training completely.

The disadvantages in toilet training your cat:

Not everyone agrees that cat toilet training is such a great idea. They argue that it is unnatural for a cat to use a toilet, as it goes against their natural instincts to cover up their smell. Toilet seats can also be slippery and there might be the risk of your cat injuring itself. Even if your cat doesn't fall in at all, he may become anxious whenever he uses the toilet and going to the toilet can become an unpleasant task.

A litter box also has the health benefit in that you can easier monitor your cat's urine for signs of infections or sickness.

Moving locations will also be harder for the cat, because a litter box can be moved easily but the cat will first need to get used to using the new toilet. With some cats this is no problem and they can become comfortable with the new toilet very fast, while other cats might be less adaptable.

Things to remember when toilet training a cat:

The most important thing to remember is that the toilet training should be done gradually. Be very patient and never rush to the next step until you are sure that you cat is completely comfortable with the current setup.

Make using the toilet as easy as you can for the cat. Always remember to keep the toilet seat up and the bathroom door open. When you have guests, ensure that they also know about considering your cat. Flush the toilet regularly as cats do not like using smelly toilets.

Thursday, February 7, 2013

Cat Litter Box Health

Cats are the most popular pets in the United States. According to the latest version of the U.S. Pet Ownership & Demographics Sourcebook (2002 Edition) there were almost 70 Million pet cats in the United States. Why are cats so popular? There are as many answers to this question as there are cat owners, but the low health risks cats pose to their owners is certainly near the top of this list. Even though the potential health risks cats pose to people are small, it is important that cat owners are aware of these risks and understand how to reduce them.

The majority of all risks stemming from cat ownership are associated with the cat litter box and/or cat feces. There are two categories of risks. The first category contains health risks posed by bacteria and parasites to both cat owners and their cats. The second category contains injuries resulting from an automatic litter box or self cleaning litter box.

Primarily the health problems experienced by cat owners or their cats come from the first category and the most significant of these risks is called Toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a tiny parasite called Toxoplasma gondii which can be found in raw or undercooked meat, unwashed fruits and vegetables, dirty cat litter boxes and outdoor soil where cat feces can be found. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) more than 60 million people in the United States may be infected with the Toxoplasma parasite(1). Fortunately, very few people ever experience any symptoms because a healthy person's immune system usually keeps the parasite from causing illness. However, pregnant women and individuals who have compromised immune systems, such as individuals infected with the HIV virus, are at risk and should take precautions to avoid being infected by the parasite. For people in this group a Toxoplasma infection could cause serious health problems to the individual or to a pregnant woman’s unborn child.

Again, most of the 60 million plus American’s infected with Toxoplasmosis parasite will never experience any symptoms. Most of those who do experience symptoms will simply think they have the Flu as the most common symptoms include swollen glands, fever, headache, muscle pain, or a stiff neck. For those in the high risk group, Toxoplasmosis can cause damage to the brain, eyes and internal organs. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, children born with Toxoplasma gondii can suffer from hearing loss, mental retardation, and blindness with some children developing brain or eye problems years after birth(2). The CDC estimates that 400-4000 fetuses are infected with the Toxoplasma gondii parasite each year and as many as 80 infants die from Toxoplasmosis annually(2).

So how does an individual contract Toxoplasmosis? A Toxoplasmosis infection is caused by ingesting the Toxoplasma gondi parasite. Most cat owners are infected with the parasite by accidentally ingesting infected cat feces. This happens when a person touches their mouth after handling a cat litter box, working in a garden or sand box or touching anything that has come in contact with cat feces(3).

People in the high risk group may wonder whether or not they should give up their cat to avoid infection. According to the CDC, it is not necessary for cat lovers to give up their cats, but it is important for them to protect themselves from infections. The USFDA makes the following recommendations for avoiding infections(2):

1) If possible, have someone else change the litter box. If you have to clean it, wear disposable gloves and wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water afterwards.

2) Change the litter box daily. The parasite doesn't become infectious until one to five days after the feces are deposited in the litter box.

3) Wear gloves when gardening in a garden or handling sand from a sandbox because cats may have excreted feces in them. Be sure to wash your hands with soap and warm water afterwards.

4) Cover outdoor sandboxes to prevent cats from using them as litter boxes.

5) Feed your cat commercial dry or canned food. Never feed your cat raw meat because it can be a source of the Toxoplasmosis gondii parasite.

6) Keep indoor cats indoors. Be especially cautious if you bring outdoor cats indoors.

7) Avoid stray cats, especially kittens.

8) Don't get a new cat while you're pregnant.

Wednesday, January 23, 2013

How to Litter Train a Cat

For most cat owners, training their cat to use the litter is a relatively painless process. It is among a cat's natural instincts to eliminate in an area that they can cover their feces in. This behavior may be a way of your cat accepting what they perceive to be as the natural order of dominance. In the wild feral cats will bury their feces if they are not at the top of their social hierarchy, if a feral cat does not bury his or her feces it is likely that the cat exhibiting that behavior is the dominant feline. So when your housecat buries his or her waste he or she may be recognizing your role as the dominant animal in their social community. It is also possible, however, that your cat may be displaying his or her inherited instinct to bury his or her feces in order to hide their trail from would be predators.
Generally kittens will learn the behavior of burying their feces and using the litter
through their mother once they are weaned assuming the mother is litter trained.
So if you bring home a young kitten of about 12 weeks, you may only need to
place kitty in the litter box and gently scratch the clean litter with your fingers
shortly after she eats to indicate to her what she is to do.


If your new cat doesn't take to litter training after your first few attempts you may
want to consider teaching her using another common method. Confine your new
addition to a small but comfortable room, preferably one with a hard floor if you
have one. Place both the litter box and the food dish in the room but don't place
them close to one another. Your cat will naturally not want to defecate near its food
source so she will look for another area. Eliminate any pillows, blankets,
newspapers, towels or other soft items where your cat may decide to eliminate from
the room before you close her in. If you have confined your cat to a room with hard
floors she is likely to avoid eliminating on the floor since urinating is likely to splash
back and get on her fur. The only remaining choice to the cat at this point is
(hopefully) the litter box.


If your cat was housebroken and all the sudden she seems to have
forgotten that instinct there are a few possibilities you might want to consider
before giving up.

1. Does Kitty Have A Dirty Litter Box? 

The most common cause of a
housetrained cat to stop using the litter is your cat
disagreeing with the level of cleanliness regarding her litter box. Your cat is more
likely to stop using the litter if she feels that it is too dirty. It is best to clean your cat's litter
every day or at the very least every second or third day. The dirtier a litter box gets
the less likely it is that your cat is going to continue to use it. Your cat wants to
eliminate in a clean environment and if she notices that every time she eliminates on
the carpet you immediately run and clean it up she perceives that as a more
desirable place to eliminate because it is so quickly cleaned. Keeping your cat's
litter as clean as possible is the best way to avoid this problem, and remember, what
you consider clean, your cat may not.
In addition to emptying the litter, you obviously need to change it from time to time
as well in order to ensure good cat health and cleanliness. Weekly changing is best,
this ensures that odors and wetness won't have too much time to build up to
unacceptable levels and it also reduces the likelihood of sickness due to high levels
of bacteria.

2. Stress. 

A cat eliminating outside of the litter box may also be a sign for
stress. The introduction of a new person or animal into the household may be putting a lot
of stress on your cat. Cats generally like to feel like they know what is going on and
what they can expect. If you upset that balance by introducing a new creature (even
a two legged one) into the household they may get stressed which can cause them
to eliminate outside the box.
If you leave your cat alone for long periods of time (for example while you take
vacations or go on business trips) and you come back you may
notice that your cat will sometimes seem aloof and standoffish. This is another
instance in which your cat may react with eliminating outside the litter box as a sort
of protest to what she perceives as being abandoned.
A new piece of furniture, or conversely, a newly missing piece of furniture may also
put stress on your cat. Order and comfort are important if you are a cat. If you
decide to get rid of that old fabric sofa because of it's ugly pea green color and
because it's falling apart at the seams and then you replace it with a brand new,
slick, top of the line, leather sofa with a refrigerator built into the side, and a
massage and heating function, your cat is unlikely to see this as a stylish upgrade
the way you would. What your cat will probably see is that one of her favorite nap
spots has disappeared only to be replaced by something she is unfamiliar with and
intimidated by.

3. Changing Litter Brands. 

Cats are creatures of habit and can also be quite finicky (remember Morris, the 9 Lives cat?). If you've recently switched the
brand of litter you usually buy this may be cause for your cat to find another place
to go. Some litters are perfumed (for humans rather than cats) and your cat may
not react well to these smells, or perhaps your cat was used to a less dusty type
of litter, a particular litter's texture, or who knows what. Changing brands or types
of litter may upset what your cat is comfortable with and the result may be a messy
carpet. If you suspect this to be the cause, you can either switch back, or
gradually introduce the new litter. Try mixing in a little bit of the new litter with the
older brand at first and gradually step up the percentage of the new litter each time
you change the box, eventually you will be able to replace the older brand
altogether. This will help your cat ease into the new litter brand rather than upset
her sense of the order of things.

4. Multiple Cats. 

As mentioned above a second animal may cause a cat to
begin to eliminate outside of the litter box, but this may not necessarily be the result of
stress. A second cat in your household should probably have his own litter box
unless your cats have proven they don't mind sharing. Again, remember cats are
clean creatures and they can be territorial as well. Some cats may not mind using
the same box, but others may refuse, which means again, the carpet becomes litter
box number two.

5. Litter Box Size Or Placement. 

 If the litter box does not provide enough
room for your cat she may not use it at all. Your cat will likely want to scratch around and be
able to feel comfortable in the litter box. Make sure it is roomy enough, easy
for your cat to get in and out of (the sides of the box should be lower for kittens
than for adult cats), and not in a high traffic area as cats seem to like some
degree of privacy when eliminating. Lastly, make sure your cat has access to the
litter at all times. Putting your litter box in a room that is closed on occasion is a
recipe for disaster. If your cat has to go and she can't get to the room that you've
put the litter in then she really will have no other alternative than to find another
suitable area to eliminate.

6. Medical Issues. 

Your cat may be experiencing kitty incontinence. Like
humans, incontinence can strike animals and this may be an indication of other medical
issues with your cat. As a cat ages, she becomes more likely to lose control of her
bodily functions just like a human does. If you suspect age or medical reasons may
be the cause for your kitty's litter box problems then you should take her to the vet
for an examination, advice and possible treatment to resolve the problem.


If your cat does make a mess outside of the litter box it is generally not good
practice to scold her or punish her. Putting her nose in the mess and then tossing
her in the litter is not going to solve your problem. Being upset with your cat is
natural after such an incident, but to display this behavior and then to put her in the
litter box is only making your cat associate the litter box with a bad experience.
Your cat may also begin to learn to be afraid of you, which is obviously not what you
want. Your best solution is to clean up the mess quickly. Put your cat in the litter
box and be friendly and speak in a calming voice with the cat. Scrape the clean
litter with your fingers and make sure your cat sees this behavior, hopefully it will
sink in. To avoid having your cat defecate in the same place outside the litter box a
second (or third) time, cover the area with a plastic sheet or something hard that
will result in your cat splashing herself with her own urine if she should chose that
place to defecate again. Clean the smell as best you can (white vinegar may help,
but make sure your furniture or carpet can handle it). You can also move her food
dish on top of or near the area that she used to defecate, a cat will not want to
defecate near her food source. If your cat uses the litter again, even just once,
reward her, play with her, pet her, give her a treat, make her associate the litter box
with a good experience rather than a bad one.

Tuesday, January 8, 2013

Why Cats Flip For Catnip

If you've ever watched as a cat "flipped" over fresh catnip perhaps you've been struck with the question; "what causes Catnip to affect cats that way?" Catnip is indeed an unusual phenomenon among cats, it has the ability to alter your cat's behavior like nothing else can. So what exactly is the reason for what scientists have coined as "the Catnip effect"?

Unfortunately for such inquisitive minds the exact reason of why Catnip affects cats in such a manner remains mostly a mystery. There is however much that we do know about Catnip and cats even if we don't have the ultimate answer of exactly "why?" yet answered.

The Science Stuff

Catnip is scientifically classified as Nepeta cataria and is a perennial herb from the mint family and is in fact also referred to as "Catmint". It is a plant indigenous to Europe but has been exported and is now found all over including the United States and Canada.

The active ingredient in Catnip is an oil; Nepetalactone, which is found in the leaves of the plant. This is the reason you are able to find Catnip in a bottle or spray form in some pet stores.

Other Uses For Catnip

Catnip is not only good to stimulate activity in cats, it can also be used by humans as an herb for a medicinal tea which may soothe toothaches, help against coughs, and may also perform as a sleep aid. Furthermore, Catnip can be used as an herb on salads or other foods as has been the case for centuries in France. Lately Catnip has also been garnering favor as a natural insect repellant rivaling the effectiveness of many store bought varieties of repellant.

Catnip and Kitty

Catnip affects approximately half of all cats. What determines whether or not a cat will react to Catnip is a genome that is inherited (or not inherited as the case may be) at birth. Kittens, regardless of whether or not they carry this genome, do not react to Catnip until reaching about 3 or 4 months of age and becoming sexually mature. Older cats are also more likely to have a diminished or non-existing reaction to Catnip, which leads scientists to believe that the Catnip effect is based at least partially on sexuality and that the reaction may be something like an aphrodisiac. Further adding to this belief is the similarity of a sexual pheromone found in the urine of the male cat to nepetalactone (the active product in Catnip).

Cats that can be traced to regions where Catnip is not indigenous appear to be unaffected by Catnip. The domesticated housecat is not the only cat that may be affected by Catnip. Larger cats can also be affected by the Catnip effect, felines such as the bobcat, lynx, tiger and even lion are known to react much the same way the common housecat would. It is interesting to note that while Catnip can act as a stimulant when a cat sniffs it, it can conversely act as a relaxant if ingested. Therefore, you may see a different, nearly opposite result depending on whether your cat chooses to eat the Catnip you provide for him/her or merely sniffs it (the latter being the more typical behavior).

How to Use Catnip With Your Cat

Catnip can prove to be a very useful tool for a few common problems with your cat. If you are lucky enough to have a cat that does react favorably to Catnip then here are a couple of ideas for you and your furry little friend.

Catnip and Lazy Cats:

Catnip can be used to get a lazy cat off his or her butt. Some cats are notoriously lazy, choosing to sleep much of their day away in a nice golden patch of sunlight on the living room carpet, only waking up to eat and gather some necessary attention from their indulgent owners. If this sounds like your cat, you may soon see (if you haven't already) that your cat is becoming more and more round. This is generally not a good thing. Catnip may be able to help. Presenting catnip to your cat encourages activity (of course provided the cat sniffs rather than eats the herb).

Many adult cats will respond to Catnip in a manner that resembles their childlike kitten hyperactivity, jumping, playing and running around as if it was given an injection of kitty adrenaline, which in essence, is the case. The effect of Catnip on a cat can last somewhere between two and fifteen minutes. If the latter is the case, then this is a decent amount of exercise and will help keep your cat a little more svelte than without a Catnip treatment. Furthermore, if you leave the Catnip out for a few hours then your cat may return to the herb later (an hour or two after the effect has worn off) and again react in an energetic fashion. So in this sense you may consider Catnip sort of like a kitty energy drink.

Catnip and Cats That Scratch Furniture:

If you have a cat that seems bent on the destruction of your furniture then Catnip may again be able to come to the rescue. Cats can be frustratingly picky about just about anything under the sun including where they want to sharpen their furniture destroying claws. It is not uncommon for a cat to damage or destroy a piece of furniture just because the owners finally gave up on trying to redirect their cat to the unused cat scratching post that set them back anywhere up to a hundred dollars and more. A good way to attempt to change this frustrating and expensive behavior is to rub some Catnip or Catnip oil on a scratching post that you are attempting to get the cat to use. Introduce your cat to the newly "Catnipped" scratching post and see how he/she reacts. If all goes well, your cat will sniff and inspect the post and then begin clawing at it. After a few times (you may have to re-Catnip the post) hopefully kitty will be trained to use the post rather than the sofa.

Using Catnip with Multiple Cats

If you've never used Catnip before and you have more than one cat it is advisable to try it out individually on each cat before introducing it to all of your cats at the same time. The reason is because Catnip affects some cats in a negative manner causing the cat in question to become aggressive rather than merely playful. Introducing it to your cats individually enables you to control the situation and keep a cat that may react aggressively isolated from your other cats. This of course means avoiding a possible catfight that could result in broken furniture, hurt kitties (possibly requiring a vet visit), annoyed neighbors (and probably owners), or a combination of all of the above.

Growing and Keeping Catnip

Growing your own Catnip can be rewarding as it can save you money, give you the satisfaction of doing something yourself and ensuring that you always get fresh, high-quality Catnip for your cat. A word of caution however; the exact kitty reaction you want to grow your own Catnip is something to be wary of. If you plan on growing your Catnip out of doors and other cats can access your Catnip garden then be prepared for unwelcome feline visitors. This may not be a problem for you personally, but cats are by nature territorial and if you have a cat that lives alone without the company of other cats this could prove to be an area of stress for your cat. Even if you keep your cat inside at all times, your cat may get agitated if he/she looks out the window to see another cat frolicking in territory your cat considers his or her own. If you choose to grow your Catnip indoors, be careful to keep it out of reach of kitty. Otherwise you'll likely have Fluffy jumping up on furniture even to the most out of the way place to get access to the tempting herb. Cats are great jumpers and not really known for respecting precious household knick-knacks. So if you do decide to grow it indoors for a cat that reacts to Catnip, be careful to grow it in a place that your cat won't be able to access it. A room that you always keep closed to the cat is probably the best solution for indoor grown Catnip.

If you do find that your cat reacts positively to Catnip you should be sure to use it sparingly so as not to dull the effect which can be the result of overexposure. A good rule of thumb is to not treat your kitty more than once a week on average to Catnip.

Given all the positive effects that Catnip may have on your cat you owe it to yourself (and naturally your fluffy little ball of affection) to see how he/she reacts to this strange and well known herb. It will provide enjoyment and exercise for your cat and most likely an entertaining show for yourself as well. It's a win win situation.